With the end of the Soviet Union , the former Turkmen socialist republic turned into the independent state of Turkmenistan. The oldest known hand knotted rug which is nearly completely preserved, and can, therefore, be fully evaluated in every technical and design aspect is the Pazyryk carpet , dated to the 5th century BC. Letters to the king of Mari: Most carpets are washed before they are used or go to the market. All the different rug styles come with or without fringe in virtually any size. When one string of wool was used up, the weaver continued with the newly dyed batch. New York  W. Comb-beaters are passed through the warp strings to beat in the wefts. A Neolithic Town in Anatolia. A new translation, with historical introduction, notes, and commentary.
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During the 15th century, a fundamental change appeared in carpet design. The high price that was to be paid for the Ardabil carpet required public collection of money, and Oriental rugs came to be understood as objects of great value by a larger audience. Turkmen carpets from the Wiedersperg collection. The red field colour of Yomud rugs is more subdued with a brown hue. Near Eastern Art Research Center. Oriental carpets can be pile woven or flat woven without pile, using various materials such as silk, wool, and cotton. Warps are ivory, with alternate warps deeply depressed, wefts of two-ply brown wool, occasionally dyed red. It is sometimes found in Kurdish or Turkmen rugs, particularly in Yomuds. Travellers' stories, court annals, home inventories and testaments and, most importantly, paintings bear evidence of rugs and carpets as goods of luxury.
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In the Soviet socialistic economy, carpet production was organized in industrial lines in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Daghestan and Georgia, which used standardized designs based on traditional motifs, provided on scalepaper cartoons by specialized artists. The main fields of Islamic rugs are frequently filled with redundant, interwoven ornaments in a manner called "infinite repeat". Diagonal, or offset knotting has knots in successive rows occupy alternate pairs of warps. I have never had this professionally cleaned Some of the rug fragments excavated by A. The hook projects from the end of the blade, and is used for knotting, instead of knotting with the fingers. Occasional reports appear about carpets and rugs being bought in Venice.
Description:The washing may be done with water and soap only, but more often chemicals are added to modify the colours. Persian carpets are classified by the social setting in which they were woven nomads, villages, town and court manufactories , by ethnic groups e. Turkmen, and also tribes like the Bakhtiari nomads of western Iran, or the Qashqai people wove animal trappings like saddle covers, or special decorations for weddings like asmalyk , pentagonally shaped camel coverings used for wedding decorations. The knot count is expressed in knots per square inch kpsi or per square decimeter. Silk pile is less resistant to mechanical stress, thus, all-silk piles are often used as wall hangings, or pillow tapestry. Part of a series on. The tradition of natural dyeing was revived in Turkey in the early s, and later on, in Iran. Materials used in carpet weaving and the way they are combined vary in different rug weaving areas. Oriental rugs from various proveniences often share common motifs. The pile knots are usually knotted by hand.